Adi Setiadi 1), Kurnia Sofyan 2)
1) Alumni Teknologi Hasil Hutan Fahutan IPB
2)Guru Besar Fakultas Kehutanan IPB
Bamboos have been important in Asian culture for thousand years. People growth in Indonesia is very large and make effect increase wood requirement for property, household furnishing and industries. Bamboos have potential roles for substitute wood function. Bamboo is a kind of non wood forest product besides rattan, Dipterocarpaceae nuts, resin and extractive. In traditional bamboo have function as building material in tropical and subtropical region. Every bamboo have unique anatomical component. Vascular bundles are one kind of anatomical component in bamboos that determine bamboos properties. Bamboo consists of different vascular bundles type so they have different properties with each other.
This study was conducted on four species in different vascular bundles type (Arundinaria japonica, Cephalostachyum pergricale, Dendrocalamus strictus, and Dendrocalamus giganteus) and three positions of the stem (base, middle and top). Objective of the study was to measure chemical component of four species of bamboos which represent of four vascular bundle types. The analysis was conducted according to TAPPI Standard Volume 1 and unbalanced nested design was applied in the study with two replications. Average values and graphs were use to analyze the result.
Many species in four vascular bundles have been different of chemistry properties. Chemistry component content in four vascular bundles type that was holocellulose, cellulose, alpha cellulose, lignin, extractive, and ash content haven’t trend distinctly. Chemistry component distribution have different trend in base, middle and top of bamboos culms. The average of chemistry content of nonstructural component in four vascular bundle type indicated that bamboos wood contain of extractive that soluble in cold water of 7.46%, hot water of 12.37%, ethanol benzene (1:2) of 7.82%, soluble in NaOH 1% of 27.73% and ash content of 4.07%. The average of chemistry content of structural component indicated that holocellulose of 72.31%, cellulose of 54.69%, alpha cellulose of 49.79% and lignin of 24.14%.
Many bamboos in different vascular bundles have chemical properties differently. Chemical component of bamboo content such as holocellulose cellulose, alpha cellulose, lignin and extractive content haven’t clearly trend. The distribution of chemical component from base, middle and top has different trend every species. So the chemistry properties of these bamboos can’t use for make identification many bamboos that have many differences of chemistry properties.
Keywords: bamboo, cellulose, holocellulose, extractive, lignin.